Cultivated for thousands of years, the fruit of the olive tree has had a profound influence on human food culture. The olive is known as being a perfect source of oleate and a great supply of high-quality energy. But beyond its nutritional value, the fruit is seen as a sacred symbol of abundance and peace thanks to its unique ability to thrive in harsh environments. Mediterranean countries—like Greece, Italy, Spain, and Algeria—collectively produce more than two thousand types of olives, and the “liquid gold” oil that is pressed from the fruit plays a key role in the Mediterranean diet. Extra virgin olive oil, in particular, has become a staple on tables across the world and is the only food ingredient for which an official certification evaluation method exists.